Betrayed by his family and undermined by faction and internal conflict, Boabdil was defeated in by the forces of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of the newly united kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. The Christian victory marked the completion of the long Christian re-conquest of Spain and ended seven centuries in which Christians, Muslims, and Jews had, for the most part, lived peacefully and profitably together.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Three years after her birth her half brother became king as Henry IV.
At first the opposition to Henry IV gathered around Alfonso, but when the latter died in Julythe rebellious magnates naturally turned to Isabella. She did not, however, play the role thus designed for her, and the fruit of her wisdom was recognition as his heiress by Henry IV at the agreement known as the Accord of Toros de Guisando September 19, Portugal, Aragon, and France each put forward a marriage candidate.
Henry seems to have wanted his half sister to marry Afonso Vking of Portugal. As between the Portuguese and Aragonese candidates, she herself, no doubt assisted in her decision by her small group of councillors, came down in favour of Ferdinand of Aragon. The king encouraged this group by going back on the accord of on the grounds that Isabella had shown disobedience to the crown in marrying Ferdinand without the royal consent.
Although Isabella and Henry were to some extent reconciledthe long-threatened war of succession broke out at once when the king died in Reign When Henry died Isabella was in Segoviawhich was secured for her claim.
They were supported by Afonso V of Portugal, who hastened to invade Castile and there betrothed himself to Joan. Upon the death of John II of Aragon in the same year, the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon came together in the persons of their rulers.
Spain emerged as a united country, but it was long before this personal union would lead to effective political unification. Ferdinand, indeed, in his first will made Isabella his heir in Aragon and openly declared the advantages his subjects would derive from the union with Castile.
But each kingdom continued to be governed according to its own institutions.
The two sovereigns were certainly united in aiming to end the long process of Reconquista by taking over the kingdom of Granada —the last Muslim stronghold in Spain. In the end, however, the conquest which began in proved difficult and drawn out, and it strained the finances of Castile.
Although some of the features of the campaign were medieval such as the order of battleothers were novel. Isabella took a close interest in the conduct of the war and seems to have been responsible for improved methods of supply and for the establishment of a military hospital.
In she and Ferdinand set up a forward headquarters at Santa Fe, close to their ultimate objective, and there they stayed until Granada fell on January 2, While she was at Santa Fe another event with which the queen was to become personally associated was in the making, for Columbus visited her there to enlist support for the voyage that was to result in the European settlement of America.
Although the story of her offering to pledge her jewels to help finance the expedition cannot be accepted, and Columbus secured only limited financial support from her, Isabella and her councillors must receive credit for making the decision to approve the momentous voyage.
The terms on which the expedition was to set out to discover a new route to the Indies were drawn up on April 17, The New World that was explored as a result of that decision was, with papal confirmation, annexed to the crown of Castile, in accordance with existing practice in regard to such previous Atlantic discoveries as the Canary Islands.
The queen and her advisers hardly needed Columbus to remind them of the opportunity now offered for the spreading of Christianity. The queen and her councillors were more ready to recognize the rights of the Indians than was Columbus; she ordered some of those he had brought back as slaves to be released.
The queen was still concerned with these problems when she died in Meanwhile, in the Inquisition had been set up in Andalusia.
There is little doubt that this represented the culmination of a long and popular movement against non-Christians and doubtful converts, which had manifested itself frequently in the late Middle Ages in Castile.
The expulsion in of those Jews who refused conversion was the logical result of the establishment of the Inquisition. Yet, however meritorious the expulsion may have seemed at the time in order to achieve greater religious and political unity, judged by its economic consequences alone, the loss of this valuable element in Spanish society was a serious mistake.
But, undoubtedly, she played a large part in establishing the court as a centre of influence. With her blue eyes, her fair or chestnut hair, and her jewels and magnificent dresses, she must have made a striking figure. At the same time display was matched with religious feeling.
Her choice of spiritual advisers brought to the fore such different and remarkable men as Hernando de Talavera and Cardinal Cisneros. A policy of reforming the Spanish churches had begun early in the 15th century, but the movement gathered momentum only under Isabella and Talavera.
The monarchs were interested in the reform of the secular clergy and still more in that of the orders of monks, friars, and nuns; Isabella took a particular interest in the reform of the Poor Claresan order of Franciscan nuns. Although when she died there was still much to be done, the rulers and Cisneros together had gone far toward achieving their goals.
This was particularly true when she thought the pope was making bad appointments to Spanish benefices or in any way encroaching on the customary rights of the crown over the Spanish churches. For example, for the vacant see of Cuenca in she rejected the Italian cardinal appointed by the pope, who four years later accepted her alternative Spanish candidate.
In seeking to control appointments to Castilian sees, Isabella was not simply inspired by national sentiments. She also sought candidates of high standards; judged by her choices of men such as Talavera and Cisneros, Isabella was remarkably effective in achieving her objective.
Isabella was almost as interested in education as she was in religion. After she reached the age of 30, she acquired proficiency in Latin.Isabella I: Isabella I, queen of Castile (–) and of Aragon (–), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile).
Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by. The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile ; on marriage they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV.
King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile were both important rulers during the Renaissance. They both ruled during a time in which change was constant. Things were being rediscovered and improved to become more efficient.
Synopsis. Ferdinand II was named king of Sicily in In he married Princess Isabella of Castile. – he struggled to take a . Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, given the title the "most Catholic monarchs" by the Pope during their reign over Spain, are often blamed for some of the greatest atrocities in history.
Queen Isabella of Castile was an example of queenship in the late medieval age. Queen of Castile united the country of Spain with her husband, King Ferdinand II of Aragon as well as fearlessly led her soldiers into battle.
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