Basic Issues and Simple Versions a. Introduction to Plain Consequentialism There is disagreement about how consequentialism can best be formulated as a precise theory, and so there are various versions of consequentialism.
Ethics should concern all levels of life: This document is designed as an introduction to making ethical decisions.
It first provides a summary of the major sources for ethical thinking, and then presents a framework for decision-making. Ethics provides a set of standards for behavior that helps us decide how we ought to act in a range of situations. In a sense, we can say that ethics is all about making choices, and about providing reasons why we should make these choices.
Ethics is sometimes conflated or confused with other ways of making choices, including religion, law or morality. Many religions promote ethical decision-making but do not always address the full range of ethical choices that we face. Religions may also advocate or prohibit certain behaviors which may not be considered the proper domain of ethics, such as dietary restrictions or sexual behaviors.
A good system of law should be ethical, but the law establishes precedent in trying to dictate universal guidelines, and is thus not able to respond to individual contexts. Law may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to address new problems.
Both law and ethics deal with questions of how we should live together with others, but ethics is sometimes also thought to apply to how individuals act even when others are not involved. Finally, many people use the terms morality and ethics interchangeably.
Others reserve morality for the state of virtue while seeing ethics as a code that enables morality. Another way to think about the relationship between ethics and morality is to see ethics as providing a rational basis for morality, that is, ethics provides good reasons for why something is moral.
There are many systems of ethics, and numerous ways to think about right and wrong actions or good and bad character. The field of ethics is traditionally divided into three areas: Our experience with applying particular ethical standards or principles can inform our understanding of how good these standard or principles are.
Three Broad Types of Ethical Theory: Ethical theories are often broadly divided into three types: Each of these three broad categories contains varieties of approaches to ethics, some of which share characteristics across the categories.
Below is a sample of some of the most important and useful of these ethical approaches. The Utilitarian Approach Utilitarianism can be traced back to the school of the Ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus of Samos BCEwho argued that the best life is one that produces the least pain and distress.
This conforms to our feeling that some good and some bad will necessarily be the result of our action and that the best action will be that which provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm.
Ethical environmental action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected—government, corporations, the community, and the environment. The Egoistic Approach One variation of the utilitarian approach is known as ethical egoism, or the ethics of self- interest.
In this approach, an individual often uses utilitarian calculation to produce the greatest amount of good for him or herself.
Ancient Greek Sophists like Thrasymacus c.Question: "What is consequentialist ethics / consequentialism?" Answer: Consequentialism is a theory of normative ethics. It holds that an act is only moral or ethical if it results in a good conclusion.
This is in contrast to deontology, which teaches morality is based on duty; virtue ethics, which. In the examples that we considered in Section 1, we saw that there are four main principles appealed to in ethical decision making: Principle of Beneficence, Principle of Autonomy, Principle of Non-malfeasance and Principle of Justice.
CONSEQUENTIALIST ETHICAL THEORIES.
Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action.
Consequentialism. Consequentialism is an ethical theory that judges whether or not something is right by what its consequences are.
For instance, most people would agree that lying is wrong. STEPS OF THE ETHICAL DECISION DECISION--MAKING PROCESSMAKING PROCESS EESE Faculty Development Workshop.
Douglas R. May, Professor and Co-Director. International Center for Ethics in Business. SUMMARY OF THE STEPS OF THE ETHICAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS 1.
2. Gather the facts 3. consequentialist preferred action?. Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence.