Investor behaviour often deviates from logic and reason, and investors display many behaviour biases that influence their investment decision-making processes. Kent Baker and Victor Ricciardi describe some common behavioural biases and suggest how to mitigate them. Investor behaviour often deviates from logic and reason. Emotional processes, mental mistakes, and individual personality traits complicate investment decisions.
Subprime mortgage crisis The s were the decade of subprime borrowers; no longer was this a segment left to fringe lenders.
The relaxing of credit lending standards by investment banks and commercial banks drove this about-face. Subprime did not become magically less risky; Wall Street just accepted this higher risk.
However, as market power shifted from securitizers to originators and as intense competition from private securitizers undermined GSE power, mortgage standards declined and risky loans proliferated.
US subprime lending expanded dramatically — As well as easy credit conditions, there is evidence that competitive pressures contributed to an increase in the amount of subprime lending during the years preceding the crisis.
Major US investment banks and GSEs such as Fannie Mae played an important role in the expansion of lending, with GSEs eventually relaxing their standards to try to catch up with the private banks.
Wallison  stated his belief that the roots of the financial crisis can be traced directly and primarily to affordable housing policies initiated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD in the s and to massive risky loan purchases by government-sponsored entities Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
On September 10,the House Financial Services Committee held a hearing at the urging of the administration to assess safety and soundness issues and to review a recent report by the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight OFHEO that had uncovered accounting discrepancies within the two entities.
The majority of these were prime loans. To other analysts the delay between CRA rule changes in and the explosion of subprime lending is not surprising, and does not exonerate the CRA.
They contend that there were two, connected causes to the crisis: Both causes had to be in place before the crisis could take place. In an article in Portfolio Magazine, Michael Lewis spoke with one trader who noted that "There weren't enough Americans with [bad] credit taking out [bad loans] to satisfy investors' appetite for the end product.
In other words, bubbles in both markets developed even though only the residential market was affected by these potential causes. After researching the default of commercial loans during the financial crisis, Xudong An and Anthony B.
Sanders reported in December Business journalist Kimberly Amadeo reported: Three years later, commercial real estate started feeling the effects.
Gierach, a real estate attorney and CPA, wrote: In other words, the borrowers did not cause the loans to go bad, it was the economy. This ratio rose to 4. This pool of money had roughly doubled in size from toyet the supply of relatively safe, income generating investments had not grown as fast.
Investment banks on Wall Street answered this demand with products such as the mortgage-backed security and the collateralized debt obligation that were assigned safe ratings by the credit rating agencies.
By approximatelythe supply of mortgages originated at traditional lending standards had been exhausted, and continued strong demand began to drive down lending standards.
This essentially places cash payments from multiple mortgages or other debt obligations into a single pool from which specific securities draw in a specific sequence of priority.
Those securities first in line received investment-grade ratings from rating agencies. Securities with lower priority had lower credit ratings but theoretically a higher rate of return on the amount invested.
Duringlenders began foreclosure proceedings on nearly 1. From tothe Federal Reserve lowered the federal funds rate target from 6. Additional downward pressure on interest rates was created by the high and rising US current account deficit, which peaked along with the housing bubble in Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke explained how trade deficits required the US to borrow money from abroad, in the process bidding up bond prices and lowering interest rates.
Financing these deficits required the country to borrow large sums from abroad, much of it from countries running trade surpluses.The European Financial Review is the leading financial intelligence magazine read widely by financial experts and the wider business community.
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FINANCIAL CRISIS INQUIRY REPORT FINAL REPORT OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION Chapter March to August: Systemic Risk Concerns events of and were neither bumps in the road nor an accentuated dip in. Big Money and the Big Lie. The picture below is one of the most important pieces anyone could look at to begin understanding the true nature/condition of our global financial system.
The Financial Crisis of The Road to Systemic Risk Crisis of The Road to Systemic Risk case study. Yiorgos Allayannis a . This paper reviews the state of the art in cyber security risk assessment of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems.
We select and in-detail examine twenty-four risk assessment methods developed for or applied in the context of a SCADA system.