Text[ edit ] There are several versions of the text of the Second Amendment, each with capitalization or punctuation differences. Differences exist between the drafted and ratified copies, the signed copies on display, and various published transcriptions.
January is over.
States and localities will spend much of their time this year grappling with troublesome new realities and trying to work out their relationship with Washington.
New realities are a given in any governmental year, but the crop includes some unusually potent ones. Legislators will be dealing with widespread water shortages, dwindling transportation funds, the emergence of new drugs that threaten to blow up Medicaid budgets, and revised pension accounting rules, among other challenges.
There will be passionate debates about how to regulate the hospitality and taxi industries, and about how to safely transport the oil and gas pouring out of North Dakota and Canada.
On education, for instance, many states are frustrated by what they see as top-down remedies that emphasize accountability through standardized testing. The Common Core backlash will continue this year, as a critical period begins for these new curriculum standards.
States will be dealing with a mandate from the Environmental Protection Agency to cut 30 percent in carbon dioxide emissions nationwide. A decision in Congress not to continue funding the program would leave last-minute holes in state budgets while stripping millions of children of health coverage.
On the following pages, Governing offers a concise look at 10 of the most important issues states will take on inalong with five others that also bear watching.
States that want to get a head start against the possibility of disruption will have to act quickly.
Plantiffs say that phrase means that subsidies to offset the cost of health care -- received by about 85 percent of the more than 8 million enrollees in the first year -- are available only in states that established their own online marketplaces, not in the 32 states where marketplaces were created by the feds.
Opponents of the suit call it an absurd fixation on a drafting error that makes no sense within the full context of the law. Regardless of the merits, if the Supreme Court upholds the challenge, subsidies will stop flowing in states using the federal exchange, leading to premium spikes that will render coverage unaffordable for many.
As more people drop out, the exchanges could be left with a coverage base made up primarily of sicker people, driving up premiums further. The states most ardently opposed to the law will likely do nothing to head off this potential problem.
But others will consider changing to a state-based exchange system to avoid losing the subsidies if the Supreme Court upholds the challenge. Among states thought to be in this category are Delaware, Illinois and Iowa. That path has been made easier by the precedent set in Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada and Oregon, all of which use or have used the federal technology platform while retaining state-based exchange status under the Department of Health and Human Services.
But states opting for this choice will need to move promptly to establish full-fledged state systems with independent governing boards, and they may have to appropriate substantial sums from their budgets. The Republican Congress will likely mount piecemeal attacks on other portions of the health-care law after staging symbolic efforts to repeal the entire act.
Republicans will try to abolish various taxes on the health-care industry that help pay for the Affordable Care Act and also seek to end the mandate that requires employers above a certain size to offer coverage to their workers.
Given that the strongest opponents of the Cadillac tax are public employee unions, this effort may stand less chance of enactment than other attempts to alter the law. Roughly half of the 8 million children on CHIP would have to leave the program.
Historically, CHIP has received bipartisan support, and polling shows that most voters want funding for the program to continue. But the uncertainty surrounding CHIP is already causing headaches for states, which have to draft budgets early in the year and may need to prepare for significant cuts in insurance coverage if federal funding disappears.
Wogan Public Pensions The booming stock market of the past few years has helped stabilize many public pension plans around the country. New accounting rules will cause these plans to appear significantly worse off than they were a year ago.
The changes will likely spur more governments into making changes aimed at paying down their plan liabilities, particularly in states, such as Illinois and Pennsylvania, that have been slow to address the problem.
First, they will require pension plans to apply a more conservative formula in calculating the actuarial value of plan assets. The new formula applies to governments that have not been making their full actuarial payments.
These plans, which typically have a high unfunded liability, will now look even more unhealthy in their fiscal annual reports, which some states started releasing late last year.
The second big change will come up later this year as governments begin filing their comprehensive annual financial reports for fiscal year GASB will require governments to report unfunded pension liabilities on their balance sheets, instead of relegating them to the notes section of the report.
But the past year has seen a growing pushback against the standards, and as students begin taking tests based on the core curriculum this spring, lawmakers at the state and federal level will likely be talking about chipping away at them.
Although the standards were created almost entirely by the states, critics see them as reflecting priorities set out by the Obama administration. The Common Core is a list of things students at each grade level should know or be able to do in English and math.
The standards attracted little controversy at first, as 45 states quickly adopted them. The Department of Education has given hundreds of millions of dollars to state associations designing standardized tests that the students in participating states will take starting this year. Those tests have to hew closely to the standards to be useful, and the standards have to be relatively uniform to help policymakers get a sense of how their students stack up with those in other states.
But over the past year or so, 11 states have decided to use tests of their own, while another 13 are considering that option, according to Education Week. Lamar Alexander of Tennessee, a leader among Republicans on education issues, has already said he wants to amend the No Child Left Behind law to leave states free to decide how they evaluate teachers.
Alexander also wants to consider eliminating some annual testing. Dannel Malloy wants to start by relieving high school juniors of the burden of taking both state exams and college entrance tests.Start studying U.S. History Chapter 8 A Push for Reform.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. -Before in America, there were only private schools that only the wealthy could afford which lays the groundwork for modern public education system-Prison Reform: MA legislature created state.
Education in the United States is provided by public, private and home schools.. State governments set overall educational standards, often mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise, usually through a board of regents, state colleges, and universities.
Funding comes from the state, local, and federal government. Private schools are generally free to determine. Mar 25, · “Education is not the only avenue toward recovering and protecting one’s dignity in prison, but it is a major one,” wrote Matthew Spellberg, who Author: David Skorton And Glenn Altschuler.
Oct 15, · Breathing Through Bars: A Brief HIstory on the Prison System in America. Updated on June 7, Anna Karpinski. more.
if not the debates revolving all things criminal in the United States? Isn't that the interesting thing? The next major incident regarding the penal system didn't really happen until the s, when dissent and Reviews: 9. In the opening chapter of Democracy in America, he wrote that “In no country is criminal justice administered with more mildness than in the United States.” For most of the 20th century, U.S.
prison rates were fairly low and stable by comparison with contemporary levels. As of the United States of America had the world's largest prison population, with over million people in American prisons or jails—up from , in —making 1 in every American adults a prisoner.