West Indies The importation of Africans into the Caribbean area as slaves began in the sixteenth century but expanded greatly after when the islands became a major source of sugar and workers were needed for the plantations.
Traditional culture patterns Linguistic and territorial organization The peoples of the Northwest Coast spoke a number of North American Indian languages. From north to south the following linguistic divisions occurred: Along the Oregon coast and in northwestern California, a series of smaller divisions occurred: The Northwest Coast was densely populated when Europeans first made landfall in the 18th century.
Estimates of density in terms of persons per square mile mean little West indian culture a region where long stretches of coast consist of uninhabitable cliffs rising from the sea.
However, early historic sources indicate that many winter villages had hundreds of inhabitants. Stratification and social structure The Northwest Coast was the outstanding exception to the anthropological truism that hunting and gathering cultures —or, in West indian culture case, fishing and gathering cultures—are characterized by simple technologies, sparse possessions, and small egalitarian bands.
In this region food was plentiful; less work was required to meet the subsistence needs of the population than in farming societies of comparable size, and, as with agricultural societies, the food surpluses of the Northwest encouraged the development of social stratification.
The best analogues for such cultures are generally agreed to be the medieval societies of Europe, China, and Japan, with their so-called noble houses. In house societies the key social and productive unit was a flexible group of a few dozen to or more people who considered themselves to be related sometimes only distantlywho were coresident in houses or estates for at least part of the year, and who held common title to important resources; in the Northwest those resources included sites for fishing, berry picking, hunting, and habitation.
House groups also held a variety of less-tangible privileges, including the exclusive use of particular names, songs, dances, and, especially in the north, totemic representations or crests. Although social stratification in Northwest Coast communities is frequently described as including three divisions—chiefly elites, commoners, and slaves or war captives—each person in fact had a particular hereditary status that placed him within the group as though he occupied one step on a long staircase of statuses, with the eldest of the senior line on the highest step and the most remotely related at the bottom.
Strictly speaking, each person was in a class by himself.
Usually a man or the widow of a past chief, this leader determined many of the patterns of daily life—when to move to the salmon-fishing station, when to build weirs and traps, when to make the first catch, when and where to perform the rite propitiating the first salmon of the season, which other groups should be invited to feasts, and so on.
A chief had many prerogatives and sumptuary privileges and in turn was expected to administer efficiently and to tend to the social and ritual affairs that ensured the general welfare and prestige of the group. Notionally those of high rank had vast authoritarian powers.
Most leaders refrained from abusing other members of the house and community—not only were they kin, but the chief also needed their cooperation to accomplish even the most basic tasks.
Many singers, dancers, and attendants were necessary to stage important ceremonies properly, and many bold warriors were needed to defend the group against foes. Leaders were also aware that there was enough flexibility in the social structure that those of low rank could abandon an abusive situation and move in with kindred elsewhere.
Slaveshowever, had few or no rights of participation in house group decisions. They usually had been captured in childhood and taken or traded so far from their original homes that they had little hope of finding their way back. Their duties generally included boring, repetitious, and messy work such as stocking the house with firewood and water.
In some groups, slaves could achieve better social standing by displaying an unusual talent, such as luck in gambling, which made them eligible for marriage to a person of higher status. In many cases, insignia or other devices were used to signal personal status.
Chiefly people often wore robes of sea otter fur, as otter pelts were quite valuable in the fur trade; the quality and level of decoration on clothing marked other statuses as well.
Head flattening was considered a beautifying process from the northern Kwakiutl region to the central Oregon coast, as well as among some of the neighbouring Plateau Indians. See also body modifications and mutilations.Bill Yenne's "Indian Wars: The Campaign for the American West" is a solid historical survey of the military struggle for conquest of the American frontier.
vendors + registration register early to ensure your spot: upcoming events stay synced with all events: steel band orchestras embrace the sweet melody.
The culture of West Bengal is an Indian Culture which has its roots in the Bengali literature, music, fine arts, drama and grupobittia.coment geographic regions of West Bengal have subtle as well as more pronounced variations between each other, with Darjeeling Himalayan hill region and Duars showing particularly different socio-cultural aspects..
West Bengal's capital Kolkata—as the former. The Navajo Nation has a land base of 27, square miles, extending into the States of Arizona, New Mexico, & Utah.
This area has a long history going back as far as pre-historic times & the subsequent arrival of Spanish & European settlers. • Each year, months of preparation go into the West Indian Carnival.
That includes creating costumes, hiring music bands, arranging for food vendors, and organizing cultural events. American Indian culture of the West.
American Indian culture of the Northeast. American Indian culture of the Southeast. American Indian culture of the Plains.
American Indian culture of the Northeast. Site Navigation. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere.